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A mathematician takes pride in the fact that his science, more than any other, is an exact science, and that hardly anything ever done in mathematics has proved to be useless. Mathematics is important for understanding sciences in Everyday Life.  Mathematics is a progressive science, although it has had periods of slow growth. Mathematics according to Mathematician and Philosopher Bertrand Russel (1872-1970),

Mathematics, rightly viewed, possesses not only truth, but supreme beauty — a beauty cold and austere, like that of sculpture, without appeal to any part of our weaker nature, without the gorgeous trappings of painting or music, yet sublimely pure, and capable of a stern perfection such as only the greatest art can show.”

It would be better to know the History of the subject. The earliest known mathematics in Ancient India dates from 3000 – 2800 BC – Indus Valley Civilization, they used the decimal system, ratios, angles pi and decimal ratios in a uniform system of ancient weights and measures. The Indus Script has not yet been deciphered completely.

When did mathematics begin? Naive questions like this have their place in history.
We can classify chronology of development of Mathematics into several parts. In this article, we’ll go back to 30000 BC to 500 BC, as per the McTutor’s History of Mathematics. Next article will be on 500 BC to 1 AD and so on.

• About 30000BC: Palaeolithic peoples in central Europe and France record numbers on bones.
• About 25000BC: Early geometric designs used.
• About 5000BC: A decimal number system is in use in Egypt.
• About 4000BC: Babylonian and Egyptian calendars in use.
• About 3400BC: The first symbols for numbers, simple straight lines, are used in Egypt.
• About 3000BC: The abacus is developed in the Middle East and in areas around the Mediterranean.
• About 3000BC: Hieroglyphic numerals in use in Egypt.
• About 3000BC: Babylonians begin to use a sexagesimal number system for recording financial transactions. It is a place-value system without a zero-place value.
• About 2770BC: Egyptian calendar used.
• About 2000BC: Harappans adopt a uniform decimal system of weights and measures.